Civil Engineering is a branch of engineering, which is a professional discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the built environment. More specifically, the construction of buildings and public works are the most common application of civil engineering. Civil Engineering is a very lucrative field with many applications and opportunities from city planning and road constructions to skyscrapers and massive arenas. Civil engineering as a profession is also involves the coalition of other professionals including architects, quantity surveyors, land surveyors, and materials and structural engineers. The field is mostly dependant on knowledge in the Mathematics, Physics, and Design subjects, although this can vary based on the specific niche. Historically, it had been considered the study of the application of scientific and physical principles to solve the problems of society and was carried out in tandem with architectural design by artisans, stonemasons, and carpenters. In the modern day, civil engineering firms such as Engineering companies Mackay which employ civil engineering among other professionals involved in construction work offer their services to the general public.
This is the most popular branch of civil engineering and is almost synonymous with it. Construction Engineering deals with the planning and construction of buildings and other civil engineering structures. Most civil engineers operating in the industry fall into this category, and a large percentage of organisations that offer civil engineering services to the public are, in fact, construction firms. Construction firms are usually involved in a more holistic approach to construction management and offers a wide range of services including design, engineering, and management.
Structural engineering is a branch of civil engineering closely related to construction engineering but with roots in physics and mathematics. This is essential in the design of civil engineering structures such as bridges and roads as it deals with the balancing of the loads and weight of the structure through the efficient use of building elements, materials, and construction techniques. Structural engineers also consider the aesthetic appearance, safety, serviceability, and sustainability of the buildings they construct.
City planning is the forte of urban engineers and focus on the arrangement of facilities and buildings in a city to ensure efficient transportation and access to people living in the city. The arrangement of public transportation systems, sewer systems, street lighting, waste management, and building amenities are considered in this field. Efficient distribution of water, electricity and telecommunication systems are also managed by urban engineers. The widespread usage of vehicles has become a point of interest to urban engineers who are divided on the decision to incorporate vehicle lanes into the layout of a city plan, with some believing that a city built around accessibility to private transport makes it less liveable for humans.
Civil engineering is a broad subject with even more branches than are described here. It also regularly shares the field with other disciplines such as Quantity Surveying and Architecture, and the advancement of technology means that it will evolve further in the coming years.